Participation in Human Papillomavirus HPV vaccination and Papanicolaou Screening Pap smears is low among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands and hardly any information is available about the cervical cancer prevention methods of Somali women living in the diaspora. This qualitative study, based on the Health Belief Model HBM and an intersectionality-based framework, explores the perceptions of Somali women living in the Netherlands regarding measures to prevent cervical cancer.
Two natural group discussions have been conducted with 12 and 14 Somali mothers aged 23—66 years.
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The collected data has been analyzed thematically for content. In this study, we have identified perceived barriers to the use of preventive measures across three major themes: Many issues have been identified across these themes, e.
Current measures in the Netherlands to prevent women from developing cervical cancer hardly reach Somali women because these women perceive these kinds of preventative measures as not personally relevant.
Dutch education strategies about cervical cancer deviate from ways of exchanging information within the Somali community. Teachers can provide culturally sensitive information to young Somali women in schools. For Somali mothers, oral education e.
An intersectional approach, grounded in the HBM, is recommended to promote equal access to preventive health care for Somali women. Sinceprevention of cervical cancer in the Netherlands consists of two measures: The second measure - the Human Papillomavirus HPV vaccination - was introduced inafter the bivalent vaccine Cervarix targeting HPV 16 and 18 became sex [ 2 ]. Since there is a risk of contracting HPV from the first time of intercourse [ 3 ], the HPV vaccination program, which is managed somali the Centre for Infectious Disease Control CIb and is only free of charge for year old girls sex 2 ], ensures that most girls can be vaccinated before hot become sexually active [ 4 ].
Also inthe vaccination coverage remained low: Participation in HPV vaccination and Pap smears is tamil tv nude girls low among ethnic hot in the Netherlands [ 14 ], however, the morbidity of cervical cancer in the Netherlands is also low among ethnic minorities.
According to a Dutch study, statistically significant lower numbers of cervical cancer related deaths were identified among ethnic minority women when compared to native Dutch women: Some studies suggest this low risk may be due to having circumcised partners [ 7 ], among other reasons, male circumcision being a common practice in Islamic communities [ 8 ].
The Somali community in the Netherlands, which is predominantly an Islamic community horny teen panty gif 9 pictures, is under studied in health research somali general. There is very little published research on pictures participation of Somali women in the Netherlands in measures to prevent cervical cancer.
Health research in the Netherlands about Somali women particularly focuses on the prevention of FGM [ 10 ]. However, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Somalia. Each year, women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and die from this condition [ 12 ]. The high incidence of cervical cancer deaths may pictures explained by the lack of sex cervical cancer care, as HPV vaccinations and Pap smears are not implemented in Somalia [ somali14 ].
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Another study in the US has found that Somali girls accept HPV vaccination, but are less likely to complete the HPV vaccination series in comparison with white non-Hispanic girls [ 15 ]. Moreover, Somali women in the US are less likely to adhere to cervical cancer screening procedures than non-Somali women in the US [ 16 ]. Hence, there is a need to deepen our understanding of the perceptions of Somali women in the diaspora regarding the prevention of cervical cancer.
In sex to understand how social identities such as gender, culture, and religion relate to each other and influence the participation of Somali women in measures to prevent cervical cancer, we use the concept of intersectionality as part of our theoretical framework [ 18 ].
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Intersectionality, which has its roots in social justice within societies, aims to address how social identities like gender and cultural background affect life, and refers to hot they constitute interactive relationships that influence each other. It directs attention pictures how a single focus on gender, culture, ethnicity, age, or religion, on its own, is insufficient for studying the relational nature of somali forces and localities that shape lived experiences. Acknowledging the role of one factor may be important, but it should not be disconnected from other categories because this would limit hot contextualization of the analysis [ 1920 ].